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April 27, 2021

RBI issues Guidelines for Appointment of Statutory Auditors for Commercial Banks and NBFCs

by CA Shivam Jaiswal in RBI

RBI issues Guidelines for Appointment of Statutory Auditors for Commercial Banks and NBFCs

RBI had announced in the ‘Statement on Developmental and Regulatory Policies’ issued as part of the Monetary Policy Statement dated December 4, 2020 that with a view to improve the quality of financial reporting of Supervised Entities (SEs), harmonised guidelines on appointment of Statutory Auditors of Commercial Banks (excluding RRBs), Primary (Urban) Co-operative Banks (UCBs) and Non-Banking Finance Companies (NBFCs) will be issued.

Accordingly, a Circular on ‘Guidelines for Appointment of Statutory Central Auditors (SCAs)/ Statutory Auditors (SAs) of Commercial Banks (excluding RRBs), UCBs and NBFCs (including HFCs)’ has been issued today. These Guidelines provide necessary instructions for appointment of SCAs/SAs, the number of auditors, their eligibility criteria, tenure and rotation, etc. while ensuring the independence of auditors. The Guidelines shall become applicable from FY 2021-22 and onwards. However, UCBs and NBFCs shall have the flexibility to adopt these guidelines from H2 of FY 2021-22 so that there is no disruption.


The Chairman/Managing Director/Chief Executive Officer,

All Commercial Banks (Excluding RRBs)

All Primary (Urban) Co-operative Banks (UCBs)

All Non-Banking Finance Companies (NBFCs) (Including Housing Finance Companies)

Madam/Dear Sir,

Guidelines for Appointment of Statutory Central Auditors (SCAs)/Statutory Auditors (SAs) of Commercial Banks (excluding RRBs), UCBs and NBFCs (including HFCs)

1. The following guidelines are issued under Section 30(1A) of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949, Section 10(1) of the Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act, 1970/1980 and Section 41(1) of SBI Act, 1955; and under provisions of Chapter IIIB of RBI Act, 1934 for NBFCs. These guidelines supersede all previous guidelines (list enclosed at Table 1) issued on the subject.

2. Applicability:

2.1 These guidelines will be applicable to the Commercial Banks (excluding RRBs), UCBs and NBFCs including HFCs (hereinafter referred to as the Entities) for Financial Year 2021-22 and onwards in respect of appointment/reappointment of SCAs/SAs1 of the Entities. However, non-deposit taking NBFCs with asset size 2 below Rs. 1,000 crore have the option to continue with their extant procedure.

2.2 As RBI guidelines regarding appointment of SCAs/SAs shall be implemented for the first time for UCBs and NBFCs from FY 2021-22, they shall have the flexibility to adopt these guidelines from H2 (second half) of FY 2021-22 in order to ensure that there is no disruption.

3. Prior Approval of RBI:

3.1 Commercial Banks (excluding RRBs) and UCBs will be required to take prior approval of RBI (Department of Supervision) for appointment/reappointment of SCAs/SAs, on an annual basis in terms of the above-mentioned statutory provisions. For the purpose, they should apply to Department of Supervision, RBI before 31st July of the reference year and the Public Sector Banks (PSBs) shall approach RBI within one month of receipt of list of eligible audit firms from RBI.

3.2 For the purpose, all Commercial Banks (excluding RRBs) in India and UCBs under Mumbai Region shall approach the Central Office of RBI (Department of Supervision). Other UCBs shall approach the concerned Regional Office of RBI (Department of Supervision), under whose jurisdiction their Head Office is located.

3.3 While NBFCs do not have to take prior approval of RBI for appointment of SCAs/SAs, all NBFCs need to inform RBI (to the same office as applicable to UCBs, as stated in Para 3.2 above) about the appointment of SCAs/SAs for each year by way of a certificate in Form A within one month of such appointment.

4. Number of SCAs / SAs and Branch Coverage

4.1 For Entities with asset size of Rs. 15,000 crore and above as at the end of previous year, the statutory audit should be conducted under joint audit of a minimum of two audit firms [Partnership firms/Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs)]. All other Entities should appoint a minimum of one audit firm (Partnership firm/LLPs) for conducting statutory audit. It shall be ensured that joint auditors of the Entity do not have any common partners and they are not under the same network3 of audit firms. Further, the Entity may finalise the work allocation among SCAs/SAs, before the commencement of the statutory audit, in consultation with their SCAs/SAs.

4.2 The Entities should decide on the number of SCAs/SAs based on a Board/Local Management Committee (LMC) Approved Policy, inter alia, taking into account the relevant factors such as the size and spread of assets, accounting and administrative units, complexity of transactions, level of computerization, availability of other independent audit inputs, identified risks in financial reporting, etc.

Considering the above factors and the requirements of the Entity, the actual number of SCAs/SAs to be appointed shall be decided by the respective Boards/LMC, subject to the following limits:

Sl. No.Asset Size of the EntityMaximum number of SCAs/SAs
1.Upto Rs. 5,00,000 crore4
2.Above Rs. 5,00,000 crore and Upto Rs.10,00,000 crore6
3.Above Rs. 10,00,000 crore and Upto Rs. 20,00,000 crore8
4.Above Rs. 20,00,000 crore12

The above limits have been prescribed to ensure that the number of SCAs/SAs appointed by the Entities are adequate, commensurate with the asset size and extent of operations of the Entities, with a view to ensure that audits are conducted in a timely and effective manner. This will be subject to review in future based on the experience.

4.3 In terms of RBI guidelines on ‘Norms on eligibility, empanelment and selection of Statutory Branch Auditors in Public Sector Banks (PSBs)’, PSBs shall allot the Top 20 branches (to be selected strictly in order of the level of outstanding advances) to SCAs in such a manner as to cover a minimum of 15% of total gross advances of the bank by SCAs. For other Entities (excluding Payment Banks and Core Investment Companies), SCAs/SAs shall visit and audit at least the Top 20 branches/Top 20% of the branches of the Entities (in case of Entities having less than 100 branches), to be selected in order of the level of outstanding advances, in such a manner as to cover a minimum of 15% of total gross advances of the Entities. In addition, the banking companies and NBFCs shall ensure adherence to the provisions of Section 143 (8) of the Companies Act, 2013 regarding audit of accounts of all branches.

5. Eligibility Criteria of Auditors

Each Entity is required to appoint audit firm(s) as its SCA(s)/SA(s) fulfilling the eligibility norms as prescribed in Annex I.

6. Independence of Auditors

6.1 For Commercial Banks (excluding RRBs) and NBFCs4, the Audit Committee of the Board (ACB)/ LMC shall monitor and assess the independence of the auditors and conflict of interest position in terms of relevant regulatory provisions, standards and best practices. Any concerns in this regard may be flagged by the ACB/LMC to the Board of Directors of the Commercial Bank (excluding RRBs)/NBFC and concerned Senior Supervisory Manager (SSM)/Regional Office (RO) of RBI.

For UCBs/remaining NBFCs, the Board of Directors shall monitor and assess the independence of the auditors. Any concerns in this regard may be flagged by the Board of the UCB/NBFC to the concerned SSM/RO of RBI.

6.2 In case of any concern with the Management of the Entities such as non-availability of information/non-cooperation by the Management, which may hamper the audit process, the SCAs/SAs shall approach the Board5/ACB/LMC of the Entity, under intimation to the concerned SSM/RO of RBI.

6.3 Concurrent auditors of the Entity should not be considered for appointment as SCAs/SAs of the same Entity. The audit of the Entity and any entity with large exposure6 to the Entity for the same reference year should also be explicitly factored in while assessing independence of the auditor.

6.4 The time gap between any non-audit works (services mentioned at Section 144 of Companies Act, 2013, Internal assignments, special assignments, etc.) by the SCAs/SAs for the Entities or any audit/non-audit works for its group entities should be at least one year, before or after its appointment as SCAs/SAs. However, during the tenure as SCA/SA, an audit firm may provide such services to the concerned Entities which may not normally result in a conflict of interest7, and Entities may take their own decision in this regard, in consultation with the Board/ACB/LMC.

6.5 The restrictions as detailed in para 6.3 and 6.4 above, should also apply to an audit firm under the same network8 of audit firms or any other audit firm having common partners.

7. Professional Standards of SCAs/SAs

7.1 The SCAs/SAs shall be strictly guided by the relevant professional standards in discharge of their audit responsibilities with highest diligence.

7.2 The Board9/ACB/LMC of Entities shall review the performance of SCAs/SAs on an annual basis. Any serious lapses/negligence in audit responsibilities or conduct issues on part of the SCAs/SAs or any other matter considered as relevant shall be reported10 to RBI within two months from completion of the annual audit. Such reports should be sent with the approval/recommendation of the Board/ACB/LMC, with the full details of the audit firm.

7.3 In the event of lapses in carrying out audit assignments resulting in misstatement of an Entity’s financial statements, and any violations/lapses vis-à-vis the RBI’s directions/guidelines regarding the role and responsibilities of the SCAs/SAs in relation to Entities, the SCAs/SAs would be liable to be dealt with suitably under the relevant statutory/regulatory framework.

8. Tenure and Rotation

8.1. In order to protect the independence of the auditors/audit firms, Entities will have to appoint the SCAs/SAs for a continuous period of three years11, subject to the firms satisfying the eligibility norms each year. Further, Commercial Banks (excluding RRBs) and UCBs can remove the audit firms during the above period only with the prior approval of the concerned office of RBI (Department of Supervision), as applicable for prior approval for appointment, as mentioned at Para 3.2 of this circular. NBFCs removing the SCAs/SAs before completion of three years tenure shall inform concerned SSM/RO at RBI about it, along with reasons/justification for the same, within a month of such a decision being taken.

8.2 An audit firm would not be eligible for reappointment in the same Entity for six years (two tenures) after completion of full or part of one term of the audit tenure12. However, audit firms can continue to undertake statutory audit of other Entities.

8.3. One audit firm can concurrently take up statutory audit of a maximum of four Commercial Banks [including not more than one PSB or one All India Financial Institution (NABARD, SIDBI, NHB, EXIM Bank) or RBI], eight UCBs and eight NBFCs during a particular year, subject to compliance with required eligibility criteria and other conditions for each Entity and within overall ceiling prescribed by any other statutes or rules. For clarity, the limits prescribed for UCBs exclude audit of other co-operative societies by the same audit firm. For the purpose of this circular, a group of audit firms having common partners and/or under the same network, will be considered as one entity and they will be considered for allotment of SCA/SA accordingly. Shared/Sub-contracted audit by any other/associate audit firm under the same network of audit firms is not permissible. The incoming audit firm shall not be eligible if such audit firm is associated with the outgoing auditor or audit firm under the same network of audit firms.

9. Audit Fees and Expenses

9.1 The audit fees for SCAs/SAs of all the Entities shall be decided in terms of the relevant statutory/regulatory provisions. Public Sector Banks will continue to be guided by relevant RBI instructions in the matter.

9.2 The audit fees for SCAs/SAs of all the Entities shall be reasonable and commensurate with the scope and coverage of audit, size and spread of assets, accounting and administrative units, complexity of transactions, level of computerization, identified risks in financial reporting, etc.

9.3 The Board/ACB/LMC of Entities shall make recommendation to the competent authority as per the relevant statutory/regulatory instructions for fixing audit fees of SCAs/SAs.

10. Statutory Audit Policy and Appointment Procedure

10.1 Each Entity shall formulate a Board/LMC Approved Policy to be hosted on its official website/public domain and formulate necessary procedure thereunder to be followed for appointment of SCAs/SAs. Apart from conforming to all relevant statutory/regulatory requirements in addition to these instructions, this should afford necessary transparency and objectivity for most key aspects of this important assurance function.

10.2 Guidelines on minimum procedural requirements are given at Annex II.

Yours faithfully,

(Ajay Kumar Choudhary)

Chief General Manager-In-Charge

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